Packaging and Sustainability
Position on the EU Packaging and Packaging Waste Regulation (PPWR) -October 2023
The draft for a European Packaging and Packaging Waste Regulation (PPWR) is currently being
discussed and processed in the Council and the EU Parliament. The AGVU recommends the following:
Design for Recycling: Stakeholder participation through a “Packaging Forum” or CEN standardisation
Consistent design requirements are crucial for increasing the recyclability of packaging. Ensuring a
genuine stakeholder voice is necessary for the development of design criteria. A participatory approach
allows ambitious and realistic requirements to be developed through diverse expertise and to be
continuously adapted to technical progress. Stakeholder involvement can be achieved through the
participation of representatives from industry and academia in the development of the delegated acts.
The EU Commission had already considered such institutionalised participation with the proposal of a
“Packaging Forum”. Alternatively, the mandating and timely development of CEN standards for all
packaging materials is an option.
Recycling capacities as a criterion for the recyclability of packaging
From 2035, the classification of the recyclability of packaging will also depend on whether sufficient
recycling capacities are available “on a large scale” throughout the EU for the respective packaging
format. However, manufacturers have only limited influence on the recycling infrastructure.
Fluctuations caused by the failure of individual recycling facilities should therefore not automatically
lead to a marketing ban for the packaging concerned. Instead, an average value of the available
recycling capacity over several years should be considered to meet the requirements.
The quantity placed on the market or the amount of waste generated per packaging format should be
used as a basis for calculation. Using the population as a benchmark for the threshold is problematic
since not all packaging formats are used by the entire population.
A geographical restriction is currently being discussed, i.e. the consideration of the recycling
infrastructure in only one or several EU member states. However, this would create barriers to market
entry and endanger the EU internal market. Moreover, such a restriction would be in contradiction with
the market realities: Sorting and recycling capacities are used across borders and cannot be exclusively
allocated to any one Member State.
Recycled content – calculated on the basis of production volume per year
The Commission had proposed that the recycled content be determined for the plastic content of each
individual unit of packaging. However, it would be much more practicable to base the calculation on
the average of the total quantity of a manufacturer’s products that are within the scope of one of the
quotas under Art. 7. This procedure would also correspond to the implementation of the SUPD in
Germany. The calculation period should be one year. A calculation per production plant, as is currently
being discussed in the Council and the European Parliament, would lead to more bureaucracy without,
however, sustainably increasing the demand for recycled materials. Decentralised producers would be
Achieving packaging minimisation with less bureaucracy
Manufacturers are going to be obliged to prove compliance with the packaging minimisation
requirements according to Art. 9 PPWR. The effort to document in a legally secure manner that
packaging cannot be smaller or lighter than it actually is seems disproportionate, especially for SMEs.
Instead of standard documentation of packaging minimisation, the competent authorities could be
authorised to request evidence from companies on a random basis or in case of justified doubts.
Refrain from packaging bans
Bans on certain packaging formats are intervention-intensive measures and also affect consumers. For
their justification, strict requirements must apply. The selection and evaluation criteria of the packaging
to be banned in the PPWR draft, however, are not transparent. There is no scientifically verifiable
reference to ecological advantages resulting from the bans. On the contrary, especially in the case of
fresh fruit and vegetables, packaging bans could have negative effects on food waste, the
environmental footprint and the product price. Against this background, packaging bans should be
completely deleted from the text of the regulation. The minimisation of packaging resources can be
achieved efficiently and at the same time effectively through economic incentives.
Reusability – Creating a methodology for LCA
Both reusable and single-use systems have their justification and should be evaluated according to the
circumstances and the environmental goals to be achieved. Well-designed reuse systems can make an
important contribution to resource and material savings in certain areas. At the same time, deposit and
recycling systems for single-use packaging also have environmental advantages in certain areas. The
PPWR should therefore reflect openness to both systems. The choice between single-use and reusable
should be made based on appropriate ecological assessments, for example, LCA (Life Cycle Assessment)
or PEF (Product Environmental Footprint). The Waste Framework Directive (Art. 4) already provides
that deviations from the waste hierarchy can be justified by life cycle thinking. This should apply
accordingly in the PPWR. The PPWR must provide the path for the development of an appropriate
methodology and be consistent with existing standards.
No forced reusability for transport packaging
The proposed reusability targets for transport packaging are hardly achievable in practice and are not
convincing from an environmental perspective. For example, a target of 100% is to be achieved only
one year after the regulation enters into force (Art. 26, Para. 12). Even if postponed by a few years, as
is currently discussed, these targets would trigger enormous changes in business processes at very high
cost. Above all, the long-established and successful closed-loop recycling of most transport packaging
would be thrown overboard: Transport packaging is regarded in the industry as a valuable raw material
that is recycled and reused across the board. Moreover, a switch to reusable packaging would require
a register and entail bureaucracy and administrative work.
The distinction between cross-border transport and transport within a member state cannot be a
criterion for the obligation to use reusable systems. It would be contrary to the principles of the EU
internal market and would disadvantage companies located in larger member states.
Specific requirements for transport packaging in the industrial or large commercial sector must be
observed. Particularly in the area of dangerous goods, a 1:1 transfer of the PPWR regulations geared
to consumer goods is not feasible. Furthermore, the list of examples for transport packaging should be
dispensed with: Some of the packaging mentioned cannot be classified as transport packaging because
they have direct contact with the contents, including pails, drums and canisters.
Refill stations are the responsibility of the retail sector
The Environment Committee in the European Parliament is considering making it compulsory for large
retailers to dedicate at least 20% of space to refill stations. Of course, refill stations can be a useful part
of reusable systems, but they must be adapted to the needs of the customers. However, only a limited
number of products are suitable for unpackaged dispensing. There are also unresolved challenges in
terms of labelling, hygiene and consumer safety. A more flexible approach that allows retailers to
choose the extent to which they introduce refill stations is therefore preferable.
EPR- fee modulation compatible with EPR systems in the member states
With the PPWR, the modulation of EPR fees according to ecological criteria becomes mandatory. The
degree of recyclability of packaging should be a uniform criterion throughout Europe. On the other
hand, the integration of recycled content is already ensured by the Article 7 targets and should not be
a further criterion.
The legal framework of the PPWR will also form the basis for the intended further development of §
21 of the Packaging Act, which regulates EPR fee modulation in Germany. A financial fund currently
under discussion, which is fed from fee surcharges by measure of ecological criteria, should be set up
under private law. This is in line with the idea of product responsibility and can be efficiently
implemented by commissioning the waste management systems to collect the fee surcharges.
The position is available for download here.
Packaging and Sustainability
Refill stations must remain optional
Negotiations on new EU packaging regulation enter decisive phase
Brussels is working at full speed to finalise the new EU Packaging Regulation. It is intended to
decisively advance the circular economy in Europe.
One of the basic ideas of the regulation is the mandatory recyclability of all packaging from 2030.With new design requirements, it should be possible to recycle a considerable part of the packagingmaterial. “The potential of recycling is to be fully exploited – this is good news for the circulareconomy. However, the expertise of the packaging and recycling industry must be decisive in thedesign guidelines. Their involvement must be anchored in the regulation,” says Carl Dominik Klepper, chairman of the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Verpackung und Umwelt (AGVU), a German association of thepackaging value chain.
The European Parliament, which is currently working on the draft Regulation, is also planning an
obligation for the extensive provision of refill stations for unpacked products in supermarkets. “Only a
few products are suitable for sale through refill stations without restrictions – hygiene and the
avoidance of food waste must continue to be a priority,” explains Klepper. “It should therefore be up
to retailers to decide to what extent they set up refill stations.”
Another pillar of the proposal is the mandatory use of already recycled material in plastic packaging
from 2030 – an important measure for closing raw material cycles and conserving resources.
However, doubts remain about the feasibility of the planned quotas in the area of food packaging.
“Here, the lack of official permits for recycling processes that can produce food-safe material is
causing problems. However, the EU institutions’ proposals so far do not point to a solution,” Klepper
The EU Commission’s draft law is currently being negotiated in the EU Parliament and between the
member states in the Council. A number of proposals are on the table – but it is questionable whether
an agreement on a common text will be reached before the European elections in 2024.
The full position of the AGVU can be found here.
The press release is available for download here.
Packaging and Sustainability
AGVU members visit thin sheet production in Andernach
On 16 June 2023 thyssenkrupp Rasselstein invited AGVU members to a workshop titled “Steel packaging and its recycling” in Andernach. The workshop was organised as part of the workshop series Know-How Exchange on Recycling Processes and included a very impressive tour of the production plant for tinned or special chromium-plated thin sheets. The strips and sheets produced in this plant are used, among other things, in tinplate packaging for food, beverages, aerosols and for chemical-technical filling goods. In the second part, the future of steel production with the use of hydrogen was discussed.
We would like to thank the host thyssenkrupp Rasselstein. The presentation slides “Transformation of steel production – Our contribution to climate neutrality” can be found here.
Packaging and Sustainability
Criteria for chemical recycling
Chemical recycling is currently a much-discussed topic in the context of packaging and the circular economy. The AGVU, which represents all packaging materials and the entire packaging value chain, is now formulating core theses on chemical recycling:
- Chemical recycling can be a complement to mechanical recycling processes, whereby mechanical recycling should be prioritised:
- Chemical recycling should only use materials that cannot be mechanically recycled.
- The use of chemical recycling should not hinder mechanical recycling and its continuous development.
- Design-for-recycling criteria for packaging should relate to mechanical recycling.
- The complex interrelationships between input and output in chemical recycling suggest the application of a balancing procedure. In principle, the production of fuels should not be considered recycling (“fuel exempt”). In addition, balancing procedures that consumers cannot clearly understand should be viewed critically.
- The traceability of the proportion of recycled material and the ecological advantages of chemical recycling processes should be at the centre of the assessment.
Packaging and Sustainability
Chemical recycling must be accounted for in the right way
Discussion on chemical recycling of packaging and current regulatory projects at the 20th AGVU Orientation Day
On Thursday, 22 June, the 20th “AGVU Orientation Day” took place. The conference with more than 100 participants from industry, politics and administration as well as press and NGOs offered a broad insight into current regulatory projects, the controversial topic “chemical recycling”, as well as the CO2-saving potential of the packaging sector.
Stefanie Schäfter from the Federal Ministry for the Environment first presented the status of work for the “National Circular Economy Strategy” planned for 2024. The strategy is to contribute to the reduction of primary raw material consumption and the decarbonisation of industry.
Dr. Aliaksandra Shuliakevich from the German Chemical Industry Association, and Dr. Alexander Kronimus, Plastics Europe Germany, explained the principles and opportunities of chemical recycling, which breaks down plastic waste into its molecular components: “These technologies offer the chance that waste that cannot be recycled mechanically can be recycled in a high-quality way and, for example, used again for food contact”. Controversial discussions focused on methods for assigning the property “recycled” to the quantities of plastic produced in a complex process. “There must be no whitewashing here – chemical recycling must be accounted for in the right way,” said Thorsten Hornung from the recycling company Saperatec – it is indispensable that consumers can rely on statements about the recycled content of packaging.
In the second part of the event, a study was presented that forecasts the contribution of the packaging sector to the German climate neutrality target in 2045. “According to our calculations, CO2 emissions from the packaging sector in Germany can be reduced by up to 94% by 2045 compared to 2021,” explained Kurt Schüler from the Gesellschaft für Verpackungsmarktforschung (GVM). This enormous savings potential, he said, was due to a triad of improved recycling of packaging, the conversion of production and recycling processes to renewable energies, and declining packaging consumption in Germany.
Another focus was on a planned revision of the national Packaging Act, which is intended to ensure that sustainable packaging will be more financially rewarding for manufacturers in the future: “The instrument of EPR fees can be used to effectively reward the environmentally friendly design of a package,” explained Dr. Juliane Hilf from the law firm Freshfields Bruckhaus Deringer. Moreover, this long-awaited initiative of the Federal Environment Ministry does not conflict with the contents of the EU Packaging Regulation currently being negotiated in Brussels, emphasised Hilf.
AGVU has been committed to product responsibility in packaging since 1986. and advocates environmentally sound and resource-saving use and recycling. The association represents the entire value chain: from the packaging industry to the consumer goods industry and trade to the dual systems, disposal companies and recyclers.
Packaging and Sustainability
Position statement on the Draft Law for a European Packaging and Packaging Waste Regulation (PPWR)
In principle, the draft European Packaging and Packaging Waste Regulation (PPWR) represents a viable means to make significant advances in the circular packaging economy within the European single market. Uniform specifications for the design of recyclable packaging will contribute towards creating a level playing field for all stakeholders in the packaging value chain and to the establishment of a genuine secondary raw materials market in Europe.
However, the proposal also contains problematic aspects: key decisions concerning the use of recycled materials, recyclability, and packaging format restrictions, for example, will be moved to the level of delegated and implementing acts and thus placed under the responsibility of the EU Commission, which fails to take account of the necessary involvement of the European Parliament. Moreover, scientific evidence of the assumed environmental benefits is still lacking for some of the proposed measures whilst necessitating a high degree of interference in the decision-making freedom of companies such as the imposition of reuse quotas and packaging bans. Yet such significant decisions ought to be made on the basis of comparative life cycle assessments. The proposal also establishes a number of new reporting and verification requirements, particularly for manufacturers and distributors, the total impact of which would involve a substantial administrative burden for businesses.
The AGVU recommends amendments in the following areas:
Recyclability (Art. 6)
This article creates the legal basis for uniform packaging design requirements in terms of recyclability. This important project has the potential to significantly increase packaging recycling rates. However, the regulations could also result in a high degree of complexity: the proposal provides for a differentiation between 30 packaging materials or categories (Annex II, Table 1); within each category, the requirements are further graded according to five performance classes (A-E Annex II, Table 2). The proposed subdivision into packaging categories is inadequate and should be amended. Plastic, for example, is subdivided into 18 categories, whilst paper and cardboard, for example, are only subdivided into two. This does not reflect the actual diversity of materials. Nevertheless, the requirement for such detailed subdivisions must be critically evaluated and weighed up against the anticipated effort for packaging manufacturers to prepare the required declaration of conformity (Art. 6.8. in conjunction with Annex VII). The digital storage of declarations of conformity should also be permitted.
In order to create legal certainty for manufacturers, it is also necessary to set a specific target date for the submission of the delegated acts relating to the specific design requirements and the specifications for the license fee modulation. Moreover, an institutionalised, transparent process for the elaboration of all delegated acts should be established involving experts from companies in the packaging value chain, for example along the lines of the development of the German “Minimum Standard for Recyclability”. The objective of the design for recycling process should be to achieve a CEN standard for all packaging materials that will ensure the standardisation of the recyclability assessment and take appropriate account of existing design for recycling specifications.
The use of recycled material (Art. 7)
To ensure a uniform understanding of the term recyclate, the text of the regulation should explicitly refer to an internationally recognised standard (for example DIN/ISO 14021:2016(E)). It is not currently possible to meet the planned recycling quotas for non-PET contact-sensitive materials, because no corresponding recycling processes are permitted. Whilst deviations from the quota are permissible in the absence of authorisation for certain technologies (Art. 7.9), they are at the sole discretion of the EU Commission. This Article should be amended to ensure that the quota for non-PET contact sensitive materials would only enter into force if the corresponding recycling processes have been approved by a certain date. If the quota is to be partially met by means of so-called chemical recycling, then the respective technologies must be clearly defined and their prerequisites and conditions specified in detail. At the same time, the Waste Framework Directive should include a provision to the effect that chemical recycling is to be ranked below mechanical recycling in the waste hierarchy. With regard to this, the Packaging and Packaging Waste Regulation ought to stipulate that packaging design should be based on material recyclability rather than chemical recyclability.
The conditions under which the EU Commission would have the right to order deviations from the stipulated recycled material quotas in the event of a lack of availability of recycled materials should be specifically defined (Art. 7.10.). In order for the EU Commission to be able to establish recycling quotas for other materials (Art. 7.11), the text of the regulation should specify the necessary conditions, such as the identification of an inadequate market function for the materials in question.
Art. 7.1 pertains to the calculation of the recyclate content with reference to each individual packaging item. This provision contradicts the requirements for calculating the recycled content of PET bottles in the European Single-Use Plastics Directive, which states that the percentage is to be calculated as the “average of all PET bottles placed on the market within the territory of the Member State concerned” (Art. 5.a EU 2019/904). Any product-based calculation reduces the prospects for efficiency in the procurement and use of recyclates, particularly when suitable recyclates are not available. Another problem is the relatively short period of three years between the publication of the recycled content calculation methodology and the entry into force of the quotas. Consequently, manufacturers should be permitted to calculate the recycled content on a product-by-product basis or as an average of the total quantity of products within the scope of one of the Art. 7 quotas.
Packaging minimisation (Art. 9)
In principle, the proposed approach to packaging minimisation is comprehensible, but the envisaged mandatory requirement for manufacturers to provide proof of conformity for each individual item of packaging is problematic. The effort required to furnish legally secure proof and documentation that packaging cannot be smaller or lighter than it actually is, seems disproportionate, especially for small and medium-sized enterprises.
Standard documentation of packaging minimisation should be dispensed with in favour of the competent authorities being empowered to request evidence from companies on a random basis or in cases of reasonable doubt. This approach would also ensure compliance with the packaging minimisation criteria set out in Annex IV.
Packaging minimisation targets, particularly in relation to food packaging, need to be consistent with other policy initiatives and, among other things, they must take account of those measures being pursued under the Food Contact Materials Regulation and Farm to Fork initiatives aimed at halving food waste at retail outlets and in private households by 2030.
Packaging format prohibitions (Art. 22)
Bans on certain packaging formats require high levels of intervention and not only affect producers but also consumers. Therefore, the prohibitions must be subject to strict rules regarding the necessity of their implementation. The lack of transparency in the draft regulation regarding the selection and assessment criteria of the packaging to be banned, appears problematic. Nor is any scientifically substantiated reference made to any ecological benefits arising from the bans included in the draft.
A consideration of the effect of the packaging bans in the European Single-Use Plastics Directive shows that alternative products are not necessarily more ecologically beneficial. Given the general increase in one- and two-person households and the need to protect food, a ban on small packaging formats would make no ecological sense. A reassessment of the proportionality and the expected environmental effects is also required in relation to the proposed ban on non-compostable single-serve coffee or tea system units that are used and disposed of together with the product (Art. 8.1. in conjunction with Art. 3 (1) (f) and (g)). There is currently no evidence to suggest that compostable products perform better than recycled products in terms of environmental impact. A large percentage of commercial preparation systems cannot be converted to work with compostable single-serving units; up to 140 million perfectly functional coffee and tea machines in EU households would become obsolete and would have to be replaced, which would result in a high additional resource consumption. Art. 8.1. should be amended to the effect that the products in question must either be recyclable or compostable within 24 months of the entry into force of the regulation.
In general, the AGVU recommends the complete removal of packaging bans from the text of the regulation. Packaging resource minimisation can be achieved in a more flexible, efficient and effective way through the use of economic incentive instruments.
Reusability (Art. 23-26)
In certain applications, well-designed reuse systems could contribute to resource and material savings. However, reusable systems do not always translate into ecological benefits compared with single-use systems. Therefore, reuse quotas should be based on appropriate environmental impact assessments, such as LCA (Life Cycle Assessment).
The minimum requirements for reusable systems (Annex VI) should also include criteria that ensure the smallest possible CO2 footprint, for example by minimising transport route lengths for reusable products.
The provisions included in the draft regulation to the effect that packaging for private users should be treated the same as packaging for commercial users are unreasonable and cannot be objectively justified. As is the case for transport packaging, further differentiation is required in this context in terms of the intended use and the goods to be filled. Some of the proposed targets for reusable packaging, particularly for transport packaging, are also too high and are in fact hardly achievable. For instance, Art. 26, para. 12. sets a quota of 100 % just one year after the regulation enters into force. Even with the aid of comprehensive and abrupt changes in corporate processes and at an enormously high cost, it would hardly be possible to implement them.
On the whole, transport packaging, especially plastic films and PPK products, can be recycled very easily. Because the recyclability rate is largely determined by the filling material, a corresponding differentiation is necessary in this respect. Listing “exemplary transport packaging types” should be dispensed with, because some of those expressly mentioned should not be classified as transport packaging according to the definition set out in Art. 3 (4), as they come into direct contact with the contents (“pails” – Article 26.7.; “canisters” – 26.12; “drums” – 26.7., 12 and 13.). Overall, the reuse targets stipulated in the draft regulation should be reviewed in a process in which the companies concerned are consulted with regard to their necessity, feasibility, and financial implications and reduced where necessary.
Packaging and Sustainability
Revamping packaging regulation throughout the entire lifecycle
EU Commission proposes new rules for packaging
Packaging must become more sustainable – with this declared goal, the EU Commission published a comprehensive legislative proposal today. The draft European Packaging and Packaging Waste Regulation contains rules for the entire packaging life cycle – from environmentally friendly design to efficient recycling.
The creation of uniform EU-wide standards and rules for the packaging sector is an essential step towards a complete circular economy. Among other things, significantly higher demands are to be made on the recyclability of packaging from 2030 to reduce resource consumption. From the same date, all plastic packaging is to contain proportions of ten to thirty percent of already recycled material – so-called recyclates. “So far, the use of recyclates has stagnated in many sectors – with ambitious EU targets, a new dynamic could unfold here,” explains AGVU Chairman Dr Carl Dominik Klepper. “In the case of food packaging, however, the quota will come to nothing if legal approvals for its use continue to be lacking. Here, the EU Commission disappoints with a lack of solution perspectives”.
In future, a new labelling system will enable consumers to identify which bin a package belongs in: this will be ensured by standardised pictograms on both the packages and the corresponding waste bins. “What belongs where is sometimes a bit of a guessing game – but only correctly separated materials can be recycled properly. It is high time that it is made easier for consumers to contribute to environmental protection” emphasises Carl Dominik Klepper.
In the areas of beverage cups, bottles and cans, the trade is to meet ambitious reusable quotas in the future. However, the text leaves open how it is to be ensured that new reusable systems represent an ecological advantage. “After all, this is not automatically a given. For example, reusable containers should be cleaned, refilled and delivered regionally to avoid long transport routes and thus emissions” comments Carl Dominik Klepper.
The EU Commission is also presenting a ban list of certain disposable packaging. This would affect, for example, micro-packaging for milk, sugar or soy sauce, as well as many fruit and vegetable packages. “With such detailed regulations, but also with the very far-reaching documentation and proof obligations for companies that the EU Commission envisages, the costs and benefits are disproportionate” says Carl Dominik Klepper.
In the coming months, the European Parliament and the Council – the representation of the EU member states – will each make amendments to the EU Commission’s proposal and then negotiate a compromise text.
The AGVU has been committed to product responsibility in packaging since 1986 and advocates environmentally sound and resource-saving use and recycling. The association represents the entire value chain: from the packaging industry to the consumer goods industry and trade to the dual systems, disposal companies and recyclers.
Anna Kupferschmitt, Head of EU Affairs and Communications
Arbeitsgemeinschaft Verpackung + Umwelt e.V., Reinhardtstr. 25, 10117, Tel.: +49 30 – 206 426 60, E-Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org